Introduction to C Programming Language

Introduction to C Programming Language
Introduction to C Programming Language

Introduction C Programming Language

    Introduction C Programming: C is a middle-level programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie while working at AT&T Bell Labs in the USA.

    The objective of its development was in the context of the re-design of the UNIX operating system to enable it to be used on multiple computers.

    Earlier the language B was now used for improving the UNIX system. Being a high-level language, B allowed much faster production of code than assembly language.

    Still, B suffered from drawbacks as it did not understand data types and did not provide the use of “structures”.

    To overcome the drawbacks Dennis Ritchie develop a new programming language called C.

    He kept most of language B’s syntax and added data types and many other required changes.

    Eventually, C was developed in 1972, containing both high-level functionality and the detailed features required to program an operating system. Hence, many of the UNIX components including the UNIX kernel itself were eventually rewritten in C. 

    Introduction C is a structured programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972 at Bell Laboratories, USA. It is one of the most popular computer languages today because of its structure, high-level abstraction, and machine-independent feature.

    C language is not tied to any particular operating system. It can be used to develop new operating systems.

    The C programs are efficient, fast, and highly portable. i.e. C programs written on one computer can be run on another with more or almost no modification.

    Introduction To C Programming Language

    Intro to C Programming: C is a procedural programming language. It was initially developed by Dennis Ritchie in the year 1972. It was mainly developed as a system programming language to write an operating system. The main features of the C language include low-level memory access, a simple set of keywords, and a clean style, these features make the C language suitable for system programs like an operating system or compiler development.

    Introduction C is a powerful general-purpose programming language. It can be used to develop software like operating systems, databases, compilers, and so on. C programming is an excellent language to learn to program for beginners.

    It is a very powerful and general-purpose language used in programming. We can use C to develop software such as databases, operating systems, compilers, and many more. This programming language is excellent to learn for beginners in programming.

    C is a general-purpose programming language created by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Laboratories in 1972. It is a very popular language, despite being old.

    C is strongly associated with UNIX, as it was developed to write the UNIX operating system.

    History of C Programming Language

    A c programming language was developed in 1972, a great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie created a new programming language called ‘C’ at the Bell Laboratories. It was created from ‘ALGOL’, ‘BCPL’, and ‘B’ programming languages. ‘C’ programming language contains all the features of these languages and many more additional concepts that make it unique from other languages.

    ‘C’ is a powerful programming language that is strongly associated with the UNIX operating system. Even most of the UNIX operating system is coded in ‘C’. Initially ‘C’ programming was limited to the UNIX operating system, but as it started spreading around the world, it became commercial, and many compilers were released for cross-platform systems.

    About C Programming Language

    The C language is imperative, procedural, and general-purpose in nature, developed by Dennis M. Ritchie in 1972 at the Bell Telephone for developing the UNIX OS. As of now, the C language is one of the most widely used computer languages along with Java, which is mostly used among modern programmers.

    Benefits of C Programming Language

    Here are a few reasons why programmers choose the C language for running a program:

    1. It is a structured language.

    2. The C language is very easy to understand and learn.

    3. The C language generates very efficient programs.

    4. It helps you handle various low-level activities.

    5. The compilation of C programs can occur on various computer programs.

    Structure of The C Program

    After the above discussion, we can formally assess the structure of a C program. By structure, it is meant that any program can be written in this structure only. Writing a C program in any other structure will hence lead to a Compilation Error.

    The structure of a C program is as follows:


    Header Files


    Main Function(){

    int main()

    Variables Declaration

    int x=100;


    printf(“value of x: %d”,x);


    return 0 }

    Why Learn C Programming Language

    1. It is one of the most popular programming languages in the world.

    2. If you know C, you will have no problem learning other popular programming languages such as Java, Python, C++, C#, etc, as the syntax is similar.

    3. C is very fast, compared to other programming languages, like Java and Python.

    4. C is very versatile; it can be used in both applications and technologies.

    5. This language helps users comprehend a computer’s internal architecture. It assists you in knowing how a computer stores information and retrieves it.

    6. Learning other programming languages becomes easier after learning C, such as Python, Java, etc.

    7. A programmer who is well-versed in the C language gets opportunities to work on various open-source projects. For instance, some of the very popular projects open-source have been written using the C programming language, such as Python interpreter, Linux kernel, and SQLite.

    8. C helps you to understand the internal architecture of a computer, and how the computer stores and retrieves information.

    9. After learning C, it will be much easier to learn other programming languages like Java, Python, etc.

    10. Opportunity to work on open-source projects. Some of the most significant open-source projects such as Linux kernel, Python interpreter, SQLite database, etc. are written in C programming.

    Difference Between C Programming Language And C++ Programming Language

    C++ was developed as an extension of C, and both languages have almost the same syntax.

    The main difference between C and C++ is that C++ supports classes and objects, while C does not.

    It is not necessary to have any prior programming experience.

    Facts About The C Programming Language

    1. The C language came into existence for writing an OS known as the UNIX operating system.

    2. This language is the successor of the B language, which came into existence in the early 1970s.

    3. The ANSI (American National Standard Institute) formalized this language in 1988.

    4. The creators of this language have totally written the UNIX OS in C.

    5. As of today, the C language is the most popular and widely used programming language.

    6. Programmers have implemented a majority of the futuristic, avant-garde tools and software using the C language.

    Application of a C Programming Language

    This language was initially utilized for developing systems- particularly those programs that would make up an OS (operating system). The C programming language was adopted in the form of a language for system development since it generates codes that run as fast as those codes that exist in the assembly language. Here are a few examples of how we can use the C language in development:

    1. Language Compilers

    2. Operating Systems

    3. Text Editors

    4. Assemblers

    5. Network Drivers

    6. Print Spoolers

    7. Modern Programs

    8. Language Interpreters

    9. Databases

    10. Utilities

    Features of C Programming Language

    1. Simple

    2. Easy To Used

    3. Powerful

    4. Portable

    5. High Efficiency

    6.Mid Level Programming Language

    7. Machine Independent

    8. Structure Oriented

    9. Flexible.

    Usages of The C Programming Language

    Procedural Language: The execution of the instructions present in a C program happens step by step.

    Speed: The C language is much faster compared to a majority of the programming languages, such as Python, Java, and many more.

    Portable: A C program can be moved from any given platform to another one, and we can also run it on that platform without any charges.

    General Purposes: We can use the C programming language for developing operating systems, databases, embedded systems, etc.

    Advantages of C Programming Language

    • It contains a powerful data definition. The data type supported are characters, alphanumeric, integers, long integers, float, and double. It also supports string manipulation in the form of a character array.
    • C supports a powerful set of operators.
    • It also supports powerful graphics programming and directly operators with hardware. Execution of the program is faster.
    • An assembly code is also inserted into C programs.
    • C programs such as compilers, Operating systems can be developed in C. For example, the popular operating system UNIX is developed in C.
    • The C language has 32 keywords and about 145 library functions and nearly about 30 header files.
    • C works closely with machines and matches assembly language in many ways.

    Compiler Vs Interpreter C Programming Language

    The structure of a C program is as follows:



    Scans the entire program before translating it into object code(machine-readable).
    Translates one instruction at a time.
    Translates one instruction at a time.Fast in Debugging.
    Execution time is less.Execution time is more
    C and C++ are the best examples that use compilers.Python, Ruby, Matlab, and Perl are the best examples that use an interpreter.

    C Program Structures Line By Line

    1. [ #include <stdio.h> ]: In a C program, all lines that start with # are processed by a preprocessor which is a program invoked by the compiler. In a very basic term, the preprocessor takes a C program and produces another C program. The produced program has no lines starting with #, all such lines are processed by the preprocessor. In the above example, the preprocessor copies the preprocessed code of <stdio.h> to our file. The .h files are called header files in C. These header files generally contain declarations of functions. We need <stdio.h> for the function printf() used in the program.

    2. [ int main(void) ]: There must be a starting point from where the execution of compiled C program begins. In C, the execution typically begins with the first line of the main(). The void written in brackets indicates that the main doesn’t take any parameter main() can be written to take parameters also. The int that was written before the main indicates the return type of main(). The value returned by the main indicates the status of program termination. See this post for more details on the return type.

    3. [ { and } ]: In C language, a pair of curly brackets define the scope and are mainly used in functions and control statements like if, else, and loops. All functions must start and end with curly brackets.

    4. [ printf(“Codeswithbaby”); ]: printf() is a standard library function to print something on standard output. The semicolon at the end of printf indicates line termination. In C, a semicolon is always used to indicate the end of a statement.

    5. [ return 0; ]: The return statement returns the value from main(). The returned value may be used by an operating system to know the termination status of your program. The value 0 typically means successful termination.

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