C Plus Plus Keywords Programming Language

C Plus Plus Keywords Programming Language
C Plus Plus Keywords Programming Language

C Plus Plus Keywords Programming Language

    C Plus Plus Keywords: C++ keyword is used as an identifier in  C++ programs, it is a


    reserved keyword in the C++ library and used to perform an internal operation.

    Keywords are most important because they can be identified Data_Types are already defined by C Library. Keywords are reserved words that have special meanings in the C language. 

    All the C keywords have been assigned fixed meanings and they cannot be used as variable names. Their meaning cannot be changed.

    There is a total of 55 keywords in the C++

    1. Auto


    2. break


    3. case 


    4. char


    5. const 


    6. continue


    7. default


    8. do


    9. double


    10. else


    11. enum             


    12. extern


    13. float   

     

    14. for     


    15. goto


    16. if


    17. int  


    18. long  


    19. register 


    20. return


    21. short   


    22. signed


    23. sizeof   


    24. static


    25. struct


    26. switch 


    27. typedef


    28. union


    29. unsigned


    30. void


    31. volatile


    32. while


    33. new 


    34. this 


    35. operator


    36. throw


    37. bool


    38. explicit


    39. private


    40. true


    41. export


    42. protected    


    43. try   


    44. public  


    45. Catch


    46. false    


    47. class  


    48. friend 


    49. default   


    50. inline


    51. delete  


    52. template


    53. namespace   


    54. virtual


    55. Pointer



    Identifiers in C++ Programming Language


    Identifier:  In C++ language identifiers are the names given to variables, constants, functions, and user-defined data. These identifiers are defined against a set of rules. Identifiers are user-defined names.


    Rules For identifier in C++ Language

    • An Identifier can only have alphanumeric characters ( a-z, A-Z, 0-9 ) and underscore( _ ).

    • The first character of an identifier can only contain the alphabet( a-z, A-Z ) or underscore ( _ ).

    • Identifiers are also case-sensitive in C++. For example, name and Name are two different identifiers in C++.

    • Keywords are not allowed to be used as Identifiers.

    • No special characters, such as semicolons, periods, white spaces, slash, or commas are permitted to be used in or as Identifier.

    Constant in C++ Programming Language

    Constants: C++ Constants are just like normal variables. But, the only difference is that their values can’t be modified by the program(programmer/user) once they are defined. Constants refer to fixed values. They are also called literals

    Constants can be of any of the basic data types like an integer constant, a floating constant, a character constant, or a string literal. There are enumeration constants as well.


    Constant Type and Data Type Example

    Constant Type

    Data Types

    Integer constants

    int ( 21, 76, -78 etc )

    unsigned int (5000u, 1000U, etc)

    long int, long long int

    (483,647 2,147,483,680)

    Real or Floating-point constants

    float (10.456789)

    Octal constant

    int (Example: 013 /*starts with 0 */)

    Hexadecimal constant

    int (Example: 0x90 /*starts with 0x*/)

    character constants

    char (Example: ‘P’, ‘R’, ‘G’)

    string constants

    char (Example: “C LANGUAGE”, “Codeswithbaby”



    Integer Constant in C++ Language

    • An integer constant must have at least one digit.

    • It must not have a decimal point or fractional part or any other symbols.

    • It could be positive or negative or may be zero

    • No commas or blanks are allowed within an integer constant.

    • The number without a sign is assumed as positive.

    • The allowable range for integer constants is -32768 to 32767.


    Real Constant in C++ Language

    • A real constant must have at least one digit

    • It is often known as floating-point constants.

    • It could be either positive or negative

    • If no sign precedes an integer constant, it is assumed to be positive.

    • No commas or blanks are allowed within an absolute constant.

    • The real constants can be written in exponential notation, containing fractional and exponential parts. For example, the value 2456.123 can be written as 2.456 X e ^+3.


    Character Constant in C++ Language

    Single Character Constant in C++ Language

    • A Character constant is a single character. It can also be represented with a single digit or a single special symbol or white space enclosed within a pair of single quote marks.

    • The maximum length of a character constant is 1 character.

    • String constants are enclosed within double quotes.

    • Example: ‘a’, ‘B’, ‘-‘

    • Character constants have integer values known as ASCII values. For example printf(“ %c %d”,65, ‘B’); will display characters ‘A’ and 66.


    String Constant in C++ Language

    • String constants are a sequence of characters enclosed within double quote marks. The string may be a combination of all kinds of symbols.

    • For example: “Codeswithbaby”, “C Language”.”450”,” R”


    Backslash Character Constant in C++ Language

    There are Some characters' who have earnings in the C++ language. They should be preceded by a backslash symbol to make use of their special functions of them.


    Given below is the list of special characters and their purpose

    Backslash_character

    Meaning

    /b

    Backspace

    /f

    Form Feed

    /n

    New Line

    /r

    Carriage return

    /t

    Horizontal Tabl

    /"

    Double Quote

    /'

    Single quotes

    //

    Backslash

    /v

    vertical tab

    /a

    Aler or bell

    /?

    Question mark

    /N

    Octal constant (N is an octal constant)

    /XN

    Hexadecimal constant (N – hex.dcml cnst)




    Constants Program in C++ Language

    #include <iostream>

    using namespace std;

    void main()

    {

    const int height = 100; /*int constant*/

    const float number = 3.14; /*Real constant*/

    const char letter = 'A'; /*char constant*/

    const char letter_sequence[10] = "ABC"; /*string constant*/

    const char backslash_char = '\?'; /*special char cnst*/

    cout<<"value of height:"<<height ;

    cout<<"value of a number:"<<number;

    cout<<"value of letter :"<<letter;

    cout<<"value of letter_sequence: "<<letter_sequence;

    cout<<"value of backslash_char : "<<backslash_char;

    }


    *****OUTPU***** 

    value of height: 100

    value of a number: 3.140000

    value of letter: A

    value of letter_sequence : ABC

    value of backslash_char:?



    Example write a Program Using #Define Preprocessor Directive in C++ Language

    #include <iostream>

    #define height 100

    #define number 3.14

    #define letter 'A'

    #define letter_sequence "ABC"

    #define backslash_char '\?'

    void main()

    {

    cout<<"value of height : "<<height;

    cout<<"value of number : "<<number;

    cout<<"value of letter : "<<letter;

    cout<<"value of letter_sequence : "<<letter_sequence;

    cout<<"value of backslash_char : "<<backslash_char;

    }

     

    *****OUTPUT*****

    value of height: 100

    value of a number: 3.140000

    value of letter: A

    value of letter_sequence : ABC

    value of backslash_char:?


    List of keywords in C++ Language

    Auto: A auto keyword makes an automatic variable like. This statement suggests that data is a variable of storage class auto and datatype int. Automatic variables are local functions, they are also called local variables. so it is called an auto variable.

    Break: A break keyword statement terminates the loop immediately. The break statement ends the for loop when the condition is false.


    How To Use break Statement in C Language? 

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    for(int i=1;i<=10;i++)

    {

    if(i==5)

    {

    cout<<"break the 5 value of break"<<endl;

    break;

    }

    cout<<i<<endl;

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    1

    2

    3

    4

    break the 5 value of break


    Continue Statement: A continue statement skips the value of the current iteration of the loop. continue statement is a print next iteration.


    How To Use Continue Statement in C++? 

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    for(int i=1;i<=10;i++)

    {

    if(i==5)

    {

    cout<<"skip the 5 value of continue"<<endl;

    continue;

    }

    cout<<i<<endl;

    }

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    1

    2

    3

    4

    skip the 5 value of continue

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10


    Switch case: A switch statement is used to check the condition. The switch statement is the very most useful statement. switch statements are multiple condition checks using a switch case. 


    Syntax of switch Statement

    switch(expression)

    {

        case '1':

        //case one execute ;

        break;

        case '3':

        //case three execute;

        break;

        default:

        //no case match is default case is executed;

    }



    How To Use Switch Statement in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    int x=2;

    switch(2)

    {

    case 1:

    cout<<"case one executed";

    break;

    case 2:

    cout<<"case two executed";

    break;

    case 3:

    cout<<"case three executed";

    default:

    cout<<value does not match;

    }

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    case two executed


    Char: A char keyword defines the only character value.

    char grade='A';


    How To Use Char Keyword in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    char grade='A';

    cout<<"Student garde value:"<<grade;

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    Student grade value:'A'


    Const: A const identifier can be declared a constant value using the const keyword. the constant value can not be changed.

    const int data = 10;


    How To Use const keyword in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    const int data=10;

    cout<<"The value of data:"<<data;

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    The value of data:10


    do-while: A do-while loop is a very useful loop. do-while loop used the repeat the value. when they do while loop the first time executes in the program given the condition.


    Syntax do-while loop in C++

    do

    {

    //statement;

    increment/decrement;

    }

    while(condition);

    }


    How To Use do-while loop in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    int i=1;

    do

    {

    cout<<i;

    i++;

    }

    while(i<=10);

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


    double and float: double and float Keywords are used for declaring floating type values. double keywords are used for the long  number of values and float is used for the floating-point value

    double data=13.75356354;

    float data=13.23;


    How To Use double and float in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    double data=687537332;

    float d=53.2364;

    cout<<"Value of double number:"<<data;

    cout<<"Value of floating number:"<<d;

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    Value of double number:687537332.000000

    Value of floating number:53.236401


    if and else: A if-else statement is used in the decision-making condition.if the statement executes the condition is true. otherwise else statements are executed. when condition false.


    Syntax of if-else statement

    if(condition)

    {

    //statement;

     }

    else

    {

    //statement;

    }


    How To Use if-else statement in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {

    int age;

    if (age<=18)

    {

    cout<<"You can play the PUBG Game';

    }

    else

    {

    cout<<"You can not play the PUBG Game";

    }

    return 0;


    *****OUTPUT*****

    You can play the PUBG Game


    enum: A enum is the named integer constants. enum is a user-defined data type. enum is an Enumeration.


    Syntax of Enumeration

    enum

    enum_name{value1,value2,value3....value n};



    How To Use enum keyword in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;

    enum year {

    Jan,Feb,mar,api,may,June,July,Aug,sep,Oct,Nov,dec};

    int main()

    {

    enum  year data;

    data=June;

    cout<<"Value of June:"<<data;

    }


    *****OUTPUT*****

    Value of june:5


    for loop: A for loop can be Using C++ Language. it is the very most useful loop. Because for loop in an initiation condition and increment/decrement only one line. so for loop is the most useful loop.


    Syntax of for loop

    for(initiation;condition;increment)

    for(int i=1;i<=10;i++)


    How To Use for loop in C++?

    #include<iostream>

    using namespace std;     

    int main()

    {

    for(int i=1;i<=10;i++) 

    {

    cout<<i;

    }


     *****OUTPUT*****

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


    extern: A extern keyword is used for external linking outside of the file.


    goto: The goto statement is a jump statement control of the program to another label of the program.


    int: A int keyword is used as the integer type value of the c++ Language.


    return: The return keyword terminates the function and returns the value of the c++ program.


    size of: A size of a keyword has been used as the size of data.


    register: A register keyword is used the quick access the data. it is speedy to retrieve the data from the computer. Because value is stored in the register.


    static: A static variable is not reclaimed. They keep their value. On re-entry to the block, the variable will have its old value.


    struct: A struct keyword is used for declaring a structure. A structure can behold the variables of different types with only a single name.


    Syntax of structure

    struct student

    {

        char name[80];

         float marks;

         int age;

    }s1, s2;


    typedef: The C++ programming language provides a keyword called typedef which you can use to give a type a new name.

    A typedef keyword can be used for the long name to a small name change. typedef can be Using the short name of any long variables name.


    unionUnion is a data type in C++ programming that allows different data types to be stored in the same memory locations.

    A union is used to group different variables under a single name. union is stored the single value stored. otherwise, other values are garbage values in the variables.


    Syntax of union

    student

    Data type var1;

    Data type var2;

    Data type var3;

    };


    void: Avoid keywords meaning nothing value. the void return type of the c program.


    volatile: A volatile keyword is used for creating volatile objects. It can be used the change the value of hardware memory.


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